This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Xerox Brings Printed Plastic Transistors Closer to Commercial Reality The new ink, which Xerox calls its “silver bullet,” is a silver ink that conducts electricity and has a melting temperature lower than the melting temperature of plastic. One of the biggest challenges in developing flexible electronics has been the fact that most metals melt at about 1,000 degrees C, while plastic melts at 150 degrees C. Under these conditions, attempting to melt ink on top of a plastic will melt the plastic before the ink melts. However, the new silver ink melts at 140 degrees C, allowing researchers to print ink without melting the underlying plastic. Xerox is discussing the technology with manufacturers. The company hopes that the ink (along with other lightweight electronic components, such as semiconductors) could lead to a variety of applications. For instance, circuits could be printed onto plastic sheets as if printing a document, and then constructed into a bendable electronic gadget. The circuits could also be used to build plastic electronic book readers that are flexible, lightweight, and can withstand damage. Other applications may include weaving the circuits into clothing, low-cost radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, flexible signs, solar cells, and novelties.via: Venture Beat© 2009 PhysOrg.com Explore further Xerox has invented a silver ink that conducts electricity, and could be used to build flexible electronics cheaply and easily. Image credit: Xerox. (PhysOrg.com) — Xerox has developed an ink which can be used to print circuits onto plastics, films, and textiles. Although circuits printed on flexible materials aren’t new, Xerox’s method may be cheap and easy enough to open the doors to many new possibilities for flexible electronics. Citation: Xerox Develops Silver Ink for Cheap Printable Electronics (2009, October 27) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2009-10-xerox-silver-ink-cheap-printable.html
The team, led by Scott Snyder, devised a technique to get around the problem of individual plants making such minute quantities of the chemical that it has been virtually impossible until now to isolate and then put them to good use; they built compounds that are similar to the polyphenols normally produced by grapes, but different enough to allow the syntheses of differing chemicals contained within them.The health benefits of resveratrol are wide and varied; some have suggested that it’s responsible for the relatively low levels of coronary disease in France, due to the resveratrol in red wine that is consumed widely in the country, this despite the fact that the French diet is known for inclusion of lots of fatty foods. Also, a recent study by a University of Florida team of researchers found evidence that resveratrol might make getting older a less traumatic experience.Thus, the search to find ways to extract the chemical from grapes, or other resveratrol producing plants, so as to put it in a pill that people could take, has been underway for several years. Until now though, the going has been extremely slow due to the plants stubborn insistence on making just enough of the stuff to ward of diseases such as fungus.Now however, Snyder and his colleagues Andreas Gollner and Maria Chiriac, have figured out a way to use a reagent (a chemical or substance added to something to produce a specific reaction) called bromodiethylsulfide bromopentachloroantimonate to cause a resveratrol dimer (a chemical structure consisting of two sub-units) to accept additional monomers (a molecule that binds to other molecules to form a polymer) to in effect, grow more resveratrol from its basic unit, allowing for the production of virtually any amount of the precious chemical.Having resveratrol in pill form would offer the benefits of drinking red wine to consumers without the drawbacks, such as the ill effects of alcohol and the breakdown of tooth enamel that occurs with all citric based drinks that lead to dental problems. (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers working at Columbia University in New York have succeeded in synthesizing several compounds from the stilbenoid, resveratrol, a chemical commonly found in the skin of grapes that has been shown to have a wide variety of medicinal benefits. More information: Regioselective reactions for programmable resveratrol oligomer synthesis, Nature 474, 461–466 (23 June 2011) doi:10.1038/nature10197AbstractAlthough much attention has been devoted to resveratrol, a unique polyphenol produced by plants and credited as potentially being responsible for the ‘French paradox’—the observation that French people have a relatively low incidence of coronary heart disease, even though their diet is high in saturated fats—the oligomers of resveratrol have been largely ignored despite their high biological activity. Challenges in achieving their isolation in sufficient quantity from natural sources, coupled with an inability to prepare them easily synthetically, are seen as the main obstacles. Here we report a programmable, controlled and potentially scalable synthesis of the resveratrol family via a three-stage design. The synthetic approach requires strategy- and reagent-guided chemical functionalizations to differentiate two distinct cores possessing multiple sites with the same or similar reactivity, ultimately leading to five higher-order natural products. This work demonstrates that challenging, positionally selective functionalizations of complex materials are possible where biosynthetic studies have indicated otherwise, it provides materials and tools with which to unlock the full biochemical potential of this family of natural products, and it affords an intellectual framework within which other oligomeric families could potentially be accessed. Skeletal formula of trans-resveratrol. Image: Wikipedia © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further Citation: Chemists figure out how to synthesize compounds from resveratrol (2011, June 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-chemists-figure-compounds-resveratrol.html Low doses of a red wine ingredient fight diabetes in mice This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Explore further Copyright 2011 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. (PhysOrg.com) — Few people doubt the “quantumness” of entanglement. Quantifying the quantum correlation of entanglement is something that is relatively regular right now. However, things change a bit when it comes to quantum correlations other than entanglement. However, there is a growing interest in the use of non-entanglement quantum correlations in a number of possible future applications. Simplifying the process of detecting genuine multiparticle entanglement More information: R. Auccaise, J. Maziero, L.C. Céleri, D.O. Soares-Pinto, E.R. deAzevedo, T.J. Bonagamba, R.S. Sarthour, I.S. Oliviera, and R.M. Serra, “Experimentally Witnessing the Quantumness of Correlations,” Physical Review Letters (2011). Available online: link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.070501/ Citation: Quantum correlations — without entanglement (2011, August 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-quantum-entanglement.html “A few years ago, scientists proposed quantum discord as a quantum correlation measure that goes beyond the entanglement paradigm,” Roberto Serra tells PhysOrg.com. “Quantum discord may be present, even in separate, non-entangled states. However, some doubt was being shed on the quantum qualities of non-entangled states because of the difficulty in quantifying the correlations.”In order to remedy the difficulty in “seeing” the correlations in a laboratory setting, Serra, a scientist at the Federal University of ABC in São Paulo, Brazil, worked with a group to create a technique that makes it possible to recognize nonclassical correlations in quantum discord. Serra worked with a team from different Brazilian institutions of higher learning, including the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation’s and the Brazilian Center for Physics Research both in Rio de Janeiro, and the Physics Institute of São Carlos, in São Paulo State. The results of the work can be seen in Physical Review Letters: Experimentally Witnessing the Quantumness of Correlations.”“Nuclear Magnetic Resonance systems at room temperature were used to test principles of quantum computation with a good level of success,” Serra explains. “The quantum nature of these demonstrations was questioned because there is no entanglement in such a system. In our experiment we reveled directly the quantum nature of this system at room temperature. We used a sample of chloroform molecules, since it’s the simplest two-qubit system. We folded a qubit in the carbon nucleus and another one in the hydrogen nucleus.”Next the Brazilian scientists were able to manipulate the system. Even though they used hot quantum bits, the system actually works as a quantum mechanical one. “We displaced the system from the thermal equilibrium by a very tiny deviation, and the phase coherence present there could encode quantum correlations as the measured by the quantum discord,” Serra says.“Our methods can be applied to another system, such as an optical system. This can enable us to say if a given system is purely classical in nature, or if it has truly quantum correlations,” he continues. Serra thinks that using this test, which is relatively simple to perform in a laboratory setting, could help lay to rest the debate over whether or not these other types of correlations are truly quantum.“We test the quantumness of discord at room temperature, and this very robust quantumness can be used to get an advantage in quantum protocols,” Serra insists. He believes that this method can already be used for metrology. “We are involved now in a test of principles in quantum metrology using this type of system, and exploiting this very tiny nonclassical correlation. We are testing those right now, to see about advantages over classical protocols, and we hope to have new results in the next few months.”“We hope to develop future applications, and advance our comprehension about the rule played by this kind of quantumness in tasks as, for example, quantum communications,” Serra continues. “We are building collaborations between theoretical and experimental researchers, and we hope that we can do more to show the usefulness of other quantum correlations beyond entanglement.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Nature Nanotechnology Engineers Show How to Inhibit Fractures in Solid Surfaces of Aircraft, Electronic Devices It all started apparently, with Balazs creating computer models of small capsules containing nanoparticles that could under the right conditions, be made to unload their contents into small cracks or defects in certain surfaces. From there, the two teams worked together to port the model to the real world. The capsule they created is made of a very thin type of polymer that lowers the surface tension of a liquid and causes oil droplets to stabilize in water. Inside the capsule, they put cadmium-selenide nanoparticles. The resultant product was a microcapsule that would roll around or in some cases slide when placed on a hard surface and tilted about.But of course, that was only the beginning. When the capsule they’d made happened to encounter a crack in the surface, it was stopped just as would a marble rolling into a crack in the sidewalk. But, then, because of the material used to make the walls of the capsule and the way the nanoparticles were prepared, hydrophobic interactions occurred causing the transfer of cadmium-selenide to the crack. Once that was done, the capsule was once again ready for rolling around and falling into other cracks. Afterwards, because cadmium-selenide just happens to be fluorescent, cracks in the material were easily found using an optical microscope.This is clearly a brilliant idea. Why go to all the painstaking work of using human, error-prone techniques to find nearly invisible cracks in such surfaces as airplane exteriors, electronics and maybe even human implants, when rolling capsules could do the work for you. Also, the same technique could conceivably be used to find cracks and then repair them that are now fixed by coating the entire surface, thus saving a lot in maintenance costs. © 2011 PhysOrg.com More information: Probing and repairing damaged surfaces with nanoparticle-containing microcapsules, Nature Nanotechnology (2012) doi:10.1038/nnano.2011.235AbstractNanoparticles have useful properties, but it is often important that they only start working after they are placed in a desired location. The encapsulation of nanoparticles allows their function to be preserved until they are released at a specific time or location, and this has been exploited in the development of self-healing materials and in applications such as drug delivery. Encapsulation has also been used to stabilize and control the release of substances, including flavours, fragrances and pesticides. We recently proposed a new technique for the repair of surfaces called ‘repair-and-go’. In this approach, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles rolls across a surface that has been damaged, stopping to repair any defects it encounters by releasing nanoparticles into them, then moving on to the next defect. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the repair-and-go approach using droplets of oil that are stabilized with a polymer surfactant and contain CdSe nanoparticles. We show that these microcapsules can find the cracks on a surface and selectively deliver the nanoparticle contents into the crack, before moving on to find the next crack. Although the microcapsules are too large to enter the cracks, their flexible walls allow them to probe and adhere temporarily to the interior of the cracks. The release of nanoparticles is made possible by the thin microcapsule wall (comparable to the diameter of the nanoparticles) and by the favourable (hydrophobic–hydrophobic) interactions between the nanoparticle and the cracked surface. Image: Nature, doi:10.1038/nnano.2011.235 Citation: Research teams develop rolling microcapsules to repair micro-sized defects in surfaces (2012, January 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-teams-microcapsules-micro-sized-defects-surfaces.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Imagine if instead of relying on special x-ray or electrical current testing technology to find really tiny cracks in the skin that covers an airplane, microcapsules filled with easily detected materials could be rolled around on their surface, stopping here and there to fill such cracks automatically so that they could then be easily found using a simple black light. That day may be coming soon, thanks to a joint effort between two teams. One, from the University of Pittsburgh, led by Anna Balazs, the other from the University of Massachusetts, led by Todd Emrick. Together they have created just such a type of capsule, as will be described in their paper to be published in Nature Nanotechnology.
© 2015 Phys.org Citation: Researchers use beams of polarized light to carve intricate patterns on disks (2015, May 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-05-polarized-intricate-patterns-disks.html In this new effort, the researchers fired a linearly polarized beam (where the electric field oscillates in a single steady direction) through a special type of plate which resulted in a beam that could be radially polarized (where a beam forms a line from the center to the edge) or (by rotating the plate 90 degrees) azimuthally polarized (where an electric field is at right angles to radial beam lines and forms concentric circles.) But instead of choosing one or the other approach, the team set the plate at intermediate angles multiple times, which resulted in a composite of both types of beams during each run. The beam that came out, the researchers noted, could be described as a logarithmic spiral that could be changed by altering the degree of plate rotation, to more strongly reflect radial or azimuthal polarization.Next the team fired the altered beams at a series of shiny steel disks, which resulted in very small spiral grooves being carved (at right angles) into their surfaces—in similar fashion to the way old phonograph records were made—some also eerily resembled human fingerprints. The team notes that the spirals that resulted had a spacing that was comparable to a wavelength of light, and because of that, might be useful for encoding information or for optical tomography applications or even for imaging and data storage. They also suggest their process could be useful for studying light in new ways, such as in analyzing what happens when orbital angular momentum is added to the beam of light, adding that their experiments thus far have suggested the presence of spin angular momentum, which suggested further that some orbital angular momentum had been changed to angular momentum. Explore further (Phys.org)—A team of researchers working at the University of Liverpool in the U.K. has created some interesting looking disks using some of the unique and exciting properties of light. In their paper published in the journal Optics Express, the team describes the process they used to create the disks and why they believe their experiments will lead to a better understanding of the angular momentum of light. Journal information: Optics Express Experimental set up. The linearly polarized laser output is expanded x3, then passes through an attenuator (λ/2 plate and Glan-laser polarizer with transmission axis horizontal), reflected from the SLM then directed to the S-waveplate. A 4f system re-images the complex field after reflection from SLM to the Galvo input aperture for surface micro-structuring while the introduction of a flip mirror re-directs the focused beam instead to the polarization analyzer (45° B/S) and Spiricon camera. Credit: Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 10, pp. 12562-12572 (2015) doi: 10.1364/OE.23.012562 More information: Tailored optical vector fields for ultrashort-pulse laser induced complex surface plasmon structuring, Optics Express Vol. 23, Issue 10, pp. 12562-12572 (2015) DOI: 10.1364/OE.23.012562AbstractPrecise tailoring of optical vector beams is demonstrated, shaping their focal electric fields and used to create complex laser micro-patterning on a metal surface. A Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) and a micro-structured S-waveplate were integrated with a picosecond laser system and employed to structure the vector fields into radial and azimuthal polarizations with and without a vortex phase wavefront as well as superposition states. Imprinting Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) elucidates the detailed vector fields around the focal region. In addition to clear azimuthal and radial plasmon surface structures, unique, variable logarithmic spiral micro-structures with a pitch Λ ∼1μm, not observed previously, were imprinted on the surface, confirming unambiguously the complex 2D focal electric fields. We show clearly also how the Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) associated with a helical wavefront induces rotation of vector fields along the optic axis of a focusing lens and confirmed by the observed surface micro-structures.via Nanotechweb Light in a spin: Researchers demonstrate angular accelerating light This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Largest spider fossil found in China To make sure that the fossil did not have spinnerets, necessary for spinning silk, that were simply missing, the fossil was also examined by use of a Diamond synchrotron—it makes use of high-powered X-rays to see tiny objects more clearly. The team found no evidence of a hole left behind in the abdomen where anything might have fallen off, showing that the arachnid was indeed a relative, and not an actual early spider. Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B More information: Russell J. Garwood et al. Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0125AbstractSpiders are an important animal group, with a long history. Details of their origins remain limited, with little knowledge of their stem group, and no insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. We describe a new fossil arachnid, Idmonarachne brasieri gen. et sp. nov. from the Late Carboniferous (Stephanian, ca 305–299 Ma) of Montceau-les-Mines, France. It is three-dimensionally preserved within a siderite concretion, allowing both laboratory- and synchrotron-based phase-contrast computed tomography reconstruction. The latter is a first for siderite-hosted fossils and has allowed us to investigate fine anatomical details. Although distinctly spider-like in habitus, this remarkable fossil lacks a key diagnostic character of Araneae: spinnerets on the underside of the opisthosoma. It also lacks a flagelliform telson found in the recently recognized, spider-related, Devonian–Permian Uraraneida. Cladistic analysis resolves our new fossil as sister group to the spiders: the spider stem-group comprises the uraraneids and I. brasieri. While we are unable to demonstrate the presence of spigots in this fossil, the recovered phylogeny suggests the earliest character to evolve on the spider stem-group is the secretion of silk. This would have been followed by the loss of a flagelliform telson, and then the ability to spin silk using spinnerets. This last innovation defines the true spiders, significantly post-dates the origins of silk, and may be a key to the group’s success. The Montceau-les-Mines locality has previously yielded a mesothele spider (with spinnerets). Evidently, Late Palaeozoic spiders lived alongside Palaeozoic arachnid grades which approached the spider condition, but did not express the full suite of crown-group autapomorphies. Suggested appearance of Idmonarachne brasieri gen. et sp. nov. in life. Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0125 This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from the U.S., Germany and the U.K. has used modern technology to reveal the true nature of an ancient arachnid. In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B the team describes the ancient creature as “almost a spider.” Citation: Ancient fossil marks bridge between early arachnids and modern spiders (2016, March 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-03-ancient-fossil-bridge-early-arachnids.html © 2016 Phys.org Credit: Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0125 Explore further Back in the 80’s a team of researchers discovered a host of fossils in a part of what is now eastern France, but at least one of them was only partly visible because the rest of its body was encased in ironstone. Because attempting to remove the dense opaque stoneware would have destroyed the fossil, researchers simply put it in a drawer and waited for technology to develop that would allow for examining the fossil while still inside the stone. In this new effort, the researchers have used technology similar to medical CT scans to allow for creating 3D imagery of the fossil and in so doing have added another piece to the puzzle of how spiders evolved.The fossil, named Idmonarachne brasieri was dated to approximately 305 million years ago, putting it before the dinosaurs, and it resembles modern spiders in many ways, but is missing one critical part: an organ for spinning silk. The fossil also did not have a tail-like appendage, which has been found on other arachnids of nearly the same time period, which suggested that it was a unique species, one that is believed to have gone extinct as its cousins continued to evolve into modern spiders. Because of its age and body structure, the specimen is helping scientists learn more about the manner in which spiders evolved. They believe it is one of the closet relatives without actually being a true spider. The 1.5cm arachnid was also found to have impressive jaws, which further helped prove it was a unique species.
Explore further Thorium (Th) is a silver-colored radioactive metallic element. Like other metals, it is relatively hard, but bendable. It also has a high melting point and is very reactive—when exposed to air, it reacts and turns black. It is also considered to be unstable. It is currently used in certain welding applications and is being considered as a replacement material for uranium in some nuclear reactors.As the researchers note, thorium’s position on the periodic table is unique because of the reluctance of its 5f orbitals to engage in bonding, as occurs with other actinides. But it is also different chemically from other Lewis acidic transitions metals. In this new effort, the team set out to better understand the electronic structure of thorium by looking specifically at bimetallic complexes with metal-to-metal bonds. As part of that effort, they developed a way to synthesize Th–Al bimetallics using reactions between different materials. The resulting complexes are unique because the thorium atoms wound up in a +3 oxidation state. Notably, just 10 Th(III) complexes have ever been synthesized.To synthesize the new Th(III) the researchers induced reactions between di-tert-butylcyclopentadienyl, supported by a Th(IV) dihalide, with an anionic aluminum hydride salt. The resultant material was then reduced, producing the new Th (III). To stabilize the new material, the researchers mated it with an alanate ligand.To prove that that new material was in fact a Th(III), the researchers studied it using EPR spectroscopy, which revealed the shared electrons between the two atoms. They also conducted DFT calculations to show that the thorium had truly donated an election to the aluminum. The team suggests that their work may be of use to other chemists looking to use actinides as donors. They note also that the their experimental results could prove useful in the future as a way to make other actinides such as plutonium, reducing the need for other stabilizers. Chemical Science (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C8SC01260A Journal information: Chemical Science The element of surprise © 2018 Phys.org A small team of researchers from the University of California, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, has developed a way to synthesize a thorium-aluminum complex with an actinide element to donate electrons when bonding with a metal. In their paper published in the journal Chemical Science, the group explains how they achieved the first-of-its-kind feat. More information: Alison B. Altman et al. Chemical structure and bonding in a thorium(iii)–aluminum heterobimetallic complex, Chemical Science (2018). DOI: 10.1039/C8SC01260AAbstractThorium sits at a unique position on the periodic table. On one hand, there is little evidence that its 5f orbitals engage in bonding as they do in other early actinides; on the other hand, its chemistry is distinct from Lewis acidic transition metals. To gain insight into the underlying electronic structure of Th and develop trends across the actinide series, it is useful to study Th(III) and Th(II) systems with valence electrons that may engage in non-electrostatic metal–ligand interactions, although only a handful of such systems are known. To expand the range of low-valent compounds and gain deeper insight into Th electronic structure, we targeted actinide bimetallic complexes containing metal–metal bonds. Herein, we report the syntheses of Th–Al bimetallics from reactions between a di-tert-butylcyclopentadienyl supported Th(IV) dihalide (Cp‡2ThCl2) and an anionic aluminum hydride salt [K(H3AlC(SiMe3)3) (1)]. Reduction of the [Th(IV)](Cl)–[Al] product resulted in a [Th(III)]–[Al] complex [Cp‡2Th(μ-H3)AlC(SiMe3)3 (4)]. The U(III) analogue [Cp‡2U(μ-H3)AlC(SiMe3)3 (5)] could be synthesized directly from a U(III) halide starting material. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on 4 demonstrate hyperfine interactions between the unpaired electron and the Al atom indicative of spin density delocalization from the Th metal center to the Al. Density functional theory and atom in molecules calculations confirmed the presence of An→Al interactions in 4 and 5, which represents the first examples of An→M interactions where the actinide behaves as an electron donor. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Thorium-aluminum complex the first with an actinide element to donate electrons when bonding with a metal (2018, May 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-05-thorium-aluminum-complex-actinide-element-donate.html
More information: Christian M. Gagnon et al. Elite swimmers do not exhibit a body mass index trade-off across a wide range of event distances, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (2018). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.0684AbstractThere is a trade-off reflected in the contrasting phenotypes of elite long-distance runners, who are typically leaner, and elite sprinters, who are usually more heavily muscled. It is unclear, however, whether and how swimmers’ bodies vary across event distances from the 50 m swim, which is about a 20–30 s event, to the 10 000 m marathon swim, which is about a 2 h event. We examined data from the 2012 Olympics to test whether swimmers’ phenotypes differed across event distances. We show that across all swimming event distances, from the 50 m sprint to the 10 000 m marathon, swimmers converge on a single optimal body mass index (BMI) in men’s and women’s events, in marked contrast with the strong inverse relationship between BMI and event distance found in runners. The absence of a speed–endurance trade-off in the body proportions of swimmers indicates a fundamental difference in design pressures and performance capability in terrestrial versus aquatic environments. The impact of extreme exercise on breathing in GB Olympic boxers and swimmers Journal information: Proceedings of the Royal Society B Explore further A trio of researchers with Hunter College of the City University of New York has found that despite swimming in vastly different events, competitive swimmers tend to have the same body mass index (BMI). In their paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Christian Gagnon, Michael Steiper and Herman Pontzer describe their study of elite swimmer morphology and how it compared to elite runner morphology. Most people have likely recognized the differences in the way elite runners are built—those who run short distances very fast tend to have a lot of muscle. Those who run for very long distances, on the other hand, tend to be very thin. These differences make sense logically—carrying extra muscle or fat in long-distance running would require more energy expenditure. In this new effort, the researchers wondered if the same might be true for swimmers.To learn more about elite swimmer morphology, the researchers accessed a publicly available database that holds information for Olympic athletes. For their study, they focused on swimmers competing in the 2012 Summer Olympics in London—and only those who swam freestyle (aka the Australian crawl). For each athlete, they looked at height, weight and in which events they swam. The first two metrics allowed them to calculate a BMI for each athlete, which they used as a means for comparing morphology between swimmers.The researchers discovered that elite swimmers all tended to have a similar morphology regardless of the events in which they swam. Those who swam short 50-meter races had approximately the same BMI as those who swam much longer 10,000-meter marathons. They did note that male and female swimmers had slightly different BMI averages—23 for men and 21 for women, and that height did not appear to play a factor in different length events.The researchers suggest that the differences in morphology between swimmers and runners is likely due to gravity. Runners have to carry weight with them as they run; swimmers, on the other hand, do not—their weight is borne by the water. Citation: Study shows competitive swimmer bodies consistent in morphology across race event lengths (2018, August 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-competitive-swimmer-bodies-morphology-event.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Credit: CC0 Public Domain © 2018 Phys.org
A one-day festival of music and dance is being organised in the city. It will be bringing together renditions of Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Chhau and Odissi along with Hindustani vocal accompanied by tabla and sitar. The disciples of the various gurus at Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra will be performing. This is the second edition of the festival.‘We got very good response last year. Since then we decided to do this festival annually,’ said Shobha Deepak Singh, director, Shriram Bharatiya Kala Kendra, who are the organisers of the event. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’‘The main idea behind organising the festival is to showcase the Guru Shishya culture and also the teaching faculty and the students under them. At the festival you would be able to see the finest students perform,’ added Singh.The performers include the disciples of gurus like Sonia Roy, Manjeet Singh, Jyotika Dayal Paust and Gundecha Brothers (in Hindustani classical vocals), Charanjit Soni (light classical vocal), Ram Mohan Misra, Shikha Khare, Urmila Nagar, Raksha Singh and Munna Shukla (in Kathak), Biswajit Roy Choudhury (sarod), Virendra Malaviya (tabla), Justin McCarthy and Priya Srinivasan (Bharatanatyam), Priyambada Pattnaik (Odissi) and Shashidharan Nair (Chhau).Check it out!DETAILAt: Kamani Auditorium, 1, Copernicus MargWhen: 28 November Timings: 5 pm onwards Phone: 23386428
Celebrating the 12th edition of Jashnebachpan, from 2 to 14 November, the National School of Drama plans to make children get interested in the art of the stage. Jashnebachpan 2014 this year, features a three-day seminar ‘Children Theatre- Whose need is it?’ at the National School of Drama Campus in the capital.Eminent Speakers like Prof Rudraprasad Sengupta, Mohan Agashe, Jayati Bose,. Sanjana Kapoor, Raja Bhattacharya, K. G. Krishnamurthy, Shaili Sathyu, Chandradasan, Suwaran Rawat, V. K. Sharma, Faisal Alkazi, Walter Peter, and many others will be present at the Seminar. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The festival is the biggest children theatre festival in India hosted in association with the Theatre In Education Company (T.I.E.).T.I.E. Co has staged over 1200 shows, 350 workshops catering to more than 11 lakhs children apart from college students, teachers, parents and theatre lovers across the world with their plays celebrates its glorious 25 years. It has not only educated and entertained audiences in India but has also captured hearts in Poland, China, Philippines and Japan. 34 plays by renowned directors like late B.V. Karanth, Barry John, Mohan Agashe, Wolfgang Kolneder, Tripurari Sharma and many more had a long haul and an impactful journey with children theatre through TIE Company. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixCelebrating some of the best children’s flavors and a distinct palate back on stage, every autumn National School of Drama (NSD) organizes a festival of theatre for children. This year, the 12th edition of Jashnebachpan, makes sure that children are treated to the best through theatre for children. Jashnebachpan 2014 featured various performances in 8 languages – Assamese, Bengali, English, Kannada, Marathi, Malayalam, Manipuri, Hindi and 1 non-verbal from 14 States/Union Territories at the National School of Drama Campus. This year NSD has invited the participation of Zonal Cultural Centers to get involved and extend encouragement and support to the various participating groups for increasing regional participation. In its Silver Jubilee year, TIE Co. is organizing its first ever three-day seminar during the festival. As one of the major highlights, all the genres of theatre for and with children are included in the current edition of Jashnebachpan in terms of performances. Jashnebachpan 2014 have works of Directors such as Swatilekha Sengupta, K.G. Krishnamurthy, Laique Hussain, Goutam Gope, Parthapratim Deb, Dinesh Kakoti , Rajkumar Raikwar,Gagan Dev Riar, Chakresh Kumar, Binod Roy, Neeraj Gahlot, Tathagata Chaudhuri and Anirban Bhattacharya, Bharat More and Anvay Ashtivkar whose performances have been chosen from the 127 plays that came to the screening committee from all over the country.